Job Analysis and Job Descriptions
For small to mid-sized businesses, it is important for employees to have a clear picture of their duties and responsibilities. Job analysis and job descriptions provide the foundation for the employment relationship. In the job description, you will compile all the information collected during the job analysis. It is a document that is used for many purposes within the organization, starting with hiring. Especially in small business where employees in small business wear many hats, a job description helps with maintaining continuity (if a key employee departs).
- Recruiters screen applicants for required KSAs (knowledge, skills and abilities)
- Applicants use it to see what they will be required to do
- Managers use it performance management and employee annual performance review
- HR uses it to determine the appropriate pay level for the work required
- HR uses it to define essential job functions and as a guideline for employees who request reasonable accommodations for disabilities
To develop the most complete and accurate job descriptions, it is best to perform a job analysis. The relevant information can be obtained by interviewing the employee and supervisor using a structured questionnaire. Complete a task inventory, and check on the amount of time spent on various tasks. All this information is assembled, summarized and placed into the job description.
The following areas are typically addressed in a job description:
- Job title
- Admin details (supervisory functions, FLSA status, reports to)
- Job summary (thumbnail sketch)
- Job duties (essential functions, non-essential)
- Equipment Operated
- Job Specifications (licenses, education, etc..)
- Physical and mental requirements
- Work Environment
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